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As recent research has shown purchase topamax 200 mg without a prescription, Aristotle’s awareness of Hippocratic views seems to have been much greater than used to be assumed discount topamax 100 mg amex,45 and several Hippocratic works were at least 42 Follinger (¨ 1996) 147–8. It could be seen as an elaborate answer to the question ‘why is it that women often do not conceive after intercourse? What is there to be said, in the light of these considerations, about the ob- jections to Aristotelian authorship raised by earlier scholars? Leaving aside arguments about style and indebtedness to Hippocratic doctrines, which are inconclusive,47 the main difficulties are the view that the female contributes ‘seed’ to generation and the view that air (pneuma) is needed to draw the seed into the uterus. With regard to the first difficulty, Balme and Follinger¨ have pointed out that also in Generation of Animals Aristotle frequently calls the female contribution ‘seed’, or ‘seed-like’ (spermatik»v),48 which is understandable when one considers that for Aristotle both the menstrual discharge and the sperm have the same material origin. In fact, Aristotle seems to waver on the precise formulation, and the view which he is really keen to dismiss in Generation of Animals is that the female seed is of exactly the same nature as the male49 – a view which he attributes to other thinkers but which is not expressed, at least not explicitly, in ‘Hist. To be sure, there is frequent mention of an emission, by the female, of fluid,51 indeed of seed (sp”rma);52 but on two occasions (636 b 15–16 and 637 b 19) the female is said to ‘contribute to the seed’ (sumb†llesqai e«v t¼ sp”rma). Interpreters have usually assumed that the author believes that both male and female seed mix in the mouth of the uterus and that this mixture is subsequently drawn into the uterus with the aid of pneuma. Now, if this was his position, it would be tanta- mount to the view which Aristotle vigorously combats in Gen. Yet on looking closer at the actual evidence for this, it is by no means certain that this is what the author has in mind. The statement in 637 b 30–1 quoted above can also be taken to mean that female ejaculation brings about a favourable condition – but does not necessarily constitute the material agent – for fertility, which would explain why it is so often mentioned as an indicator:55 the fact that she ejaculates (also in sleep), indicates that she is ready to receive the male seed and draw it into the uterus, because it shows that the uterus is positioned in the right direction. On two other occasions, however, it is said that the woman draws in ‘what she has been given’ (t¼ did»menon, t¼ doq”n),58 which does not really suggest that what is drawn in is a mixture of two contributions from both sides. Aristotle On Sterility 273 not constitute the female contribution in a material sense, the mechanism of its emission does contribute, though perhaps indirectly, to the female’s ability to receive the male seed. It might be objected to this interpretation that it is questionable whether the fluid would then still qualify as ‘seed’. I see no immediate answer to this question, except that it is the kind of difficulty that, one could imagine, might cause Aristotle, in Generation of Animals, to be more specific and to conclude explicitly that the female emission during intercourse does not constitute the female contribution in the material sense. As the use of terms such as ˆp»krisiv, –x»douv, sunekkr©nein and –kkr©nesqai in this Generation of Animals passage shows, Aristotle is not discussing copulation but the transport of seed from various sections within the body of the discharging agent to the genital organ (the o«ke±ov t»pov) where it is discharged. Or is it when the uterus is not cold enough to discharge it nor hot enough to concoct it? Contrary to Follinger,66 I find it not at all difficult to ¨ imagine that in Generation of Animals Aristotle would refer to one of such possible explanations by means of ãsper tin”v fasin, even if he himself had considered it on another, possibly earlier occasion. The only problem concerning a divergence of doctrine for which I fail to see an immediate solution is the explanation of multiple offspring from one pregnancy in Hist. However, such a commentary would at least have to take account of the difference in status, method and purpose between ‘Hist. So although Balme’s analysis of the text is open to serious question and many of Follinger’s¨ objections to his arguments are justified, Balme’s conclusions have some plausibility, although they would be better presented in the form of a hypothesis in need of further investigation; ‘Hist. It is possibly identical with the work entitled Ëp•r toÓ 66 Follinger (¨ 1996) 150. The Generation of Animals passage distinguishes various kinds of sterility with various causes but these are stated in very general terms, and the cases ‘Hist. Gyn 316 69 70 71 72 73 21064 74 69 1987 274 70 226142 231163 71 1121 218 72 1987 274 73 1991 67 74 1334 2313 1121 231163 Abel, K. Zu den Formen und Gattungen fruhgriechischer wissenschaftlicher Literatur’, Freiburg (unpublished Habil-¨ itationsarbeit) (), ‘Aristoteles’ Vorstellung von der Ernahrung¨ der Lebewesen’, in W. De causis plantarum Het medisch denken in de oudheid, de middeleeuwen en de renaissance Antieke geneeskunde, in teksten van Griekse en Latijnse auteurs vanaf Home- rus tot het begin van de Middeleeuwen Aristotle’s Cosmology. A Commentary on book of the Metaphysics Aristotle’s Poetics: the Argument Zweite Auflage im Altertum. Kulturgeschichtliche Studien zur Uberlieferung der antiken Literatur ¨ Sleep Schlaf und Traum bei Aristoteles Journal of the History of Philosophy De Aristotelis dicendi ratione. Observationes de par- ticularum usu 354 1955 2 4 1974 1982 66 20938 1998 1998 12140 1993 1998 1990 1984 29 1749 1931 5 289314 1975 31519 2002 1966 22 16985 1949 18 279324 1967 1968 5 2236 1977 1980 1980 33346 1989 73 6477 1989 12 718 1989 13143 1990 1996 11342 Bibliography Les textes medicaux´ latins comme litterature ´ Israel Oriental Studies Die platonischen Dialoge in ihrem Verhaltnis¨ zu den hip- pokratischen Schriften Die naturwissenschaftlichen Schriften des Aristoteles in ihrem Verhaltnis zu¨ den Buchern der hippokratischen Sammlung ¨ Theophrastos Strukturprobleme der aristotelischen und theophrastischen Gottesvorstellung Hippokrates. Gebrauch von Nousos und Nosema On Dreams Phronesis Science and Philosophy in Aristotle’s Biological Works Aristotle and Michael of Ephesus on the Movement and Progression of Animals Aristoteles als Wissenschaftstheoretiker Gesnerus Die Menstruation und ihre Tabus Theophrastus. Mai 1998 Aristotle’s Concept of Soul, Sleep and Dreams Griechisches Lesebuch Eranos–Jahrbuch Food in Antiquity Aristotle. De Generatione et Corruptione The Mediaeval Latin Versions of the Aristotelian Scientific Corpus, with Special Reference to the Biological Works Hippocrates Die hippokratische Schrift De morbis I Munchener Medizinische Wochenschrift ¨ Heilige Krankheit. Epilepsie in antiker Medizin, Astrologie und Religion Eos Studien zur Theorie der antiken Gesundheitslehre Wurzburger Jahrbucher fur die¨ ¨ ¨ Altertumswissenschaft Elenchos Hypnos der Allbezwinger Aristotle’s Eudemian Ethics. General index sunesis techne ¯ tekmerion ¯ diaphorai theios see also On the Seed viva vox see also . Jain Textbook of Personalized Medicine Second Edition Universal Free E-Book Store Donate Us, In order to keep our Service Alive, We have to pay for placing files (Abstracts, Books, Literature & Software) on File Hosting Servers, Your donations will make our process of payment a bit easier, Please use any one of the Payment Gateway for Donation. All rights are reserved by the Publisher, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microfilms or in any other physical way, and transmission or information storage and retrieval, electronic adaptation, computer software, or by similar or dissimilar methodology now known or hereafter developed. The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, service marks, etc.

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Beryllium-8 is the only lightest nuclide that decays by breaking up into two a-particles buy topamax 200mg on-line. The a-particles are basically helium ions with two protons and two neutrons in the nucleus and two electrons removed from the helium atom purchase topamax 200 mg online. After a-decay, the atomic number of the nucleus is reduced by 2 and the mass number by 4. Beta (b−)-Decay 15 222Rn → 218Po + a 86 84 The a-particles from a given radionuclide all have discrete energies cor- responding to the decay of the initial nuclide to a particular energy level of the product (including, of course, its ground state). The energy of the a- particles is, as a rule, equal to the energy difference between the two levels and ranges from 1 to 10MeV. The high-energy a-particles normally origi- nate from the short-lived radionuclides and vice versa. The a-particles can be stopped by a piece of paper, a few centimeters of air, and gloves. In the b -decay process, a neutron is converted to a proton, thus raising the atomic number Z of the product by 1. Thus: n → p + b− + The difference in energy between the parent and daughter nuclides is called the transition or decay energy, denoted by E. The b−-particles carry max Emax or part of it, exhibiting a spectrum of energy as shown in Figure 2. This obser- max vation indicates that b−-particles often carry only a part of the transition − energy, and energy is not apparently conserved in b -decay. To satisfy the law of energy conservation, a particle called the antineutrino, , with no charge and a negligible mass has been postulated, which carries the remain- der of E in each b−-decay. In other words, b−-decay is followed by isomeric transition if energetically permitted. The decay process of a radionuclide is normally represented by what is called the decay scheme. The b -decay is shown by a left-to-right arrow from the parent nuclide to the daughter nuclide, whereas the iso- meric transition is displayed by a vertical arrow between the two states. Although it is often said that 131I emits 364-keV 131 g-rays, it should be understood that the 364-keV g-ray belongs to Xe as Fig. Eighty-one percent of the total 131I radionuclides decay by 364-keV g-ray emission. Approximately 87% of the total 99Mo ultimately decays to 99mTc, and the remaining 13% decays to 99Tc. This is true for all b−-, b+-, or electron capture decays that are followed by g-ray emission. Some examples of b−-decay follow: 99 99m − 42Mo → 43Tc + b + 131I → 131Xe + b− + 53 54 67Cu → 67Zn + b− + 29 30 90 90 − 38Sr → 39Y + b + It should be noted that in b−-decay, the atomic number of the daughter nuclide is increased by 1 and the mass number remains the same. Positron emission takes place only when the energy dif- ference (transition energy) between the parent and daughter nuclides is 18 2. In b -decay, essentially a proton is converted to a neutron plus a positron, thus, decreasing the atomic number Z of the daugh- ter nuclide by 1. Some examples of b+-decay follow: 18F → 18O + b+ + 9 8 68 68 + 31Ga → 30Zn + b + 13 13 + 7N → 6C + b + 15 15 + 8O → 7N + b + + The energetic b -particle loses energy while passing through matter. When it loses almost all of its energy, it combines with an atomic electron of the medium and is annihilated, giving rise to two photons of 511keV emitted in opposite directions. The positrons are annihilated in medium to give rise to two 511-keV g-rays emitted in opposite directions. Thus, p + e− → n + In this process, the atomic number of the daughter nuclide is lowered by 1. Radioactive Decay the transition of an electron from the next upper shell, in which case the difference in energy between the two shells appears as a characteristic x-ray of the daughter nuclide. Also, as described earlier, instead of charac- teristic x-ray emission, the Auger process can occur, whereby an Auger electron is emitted. If the energy difference between the proton-rich parent nuclide and the + daughter nuclide is 1. If the total conversion coefficient (aT) of 195-keV g-rays of a radionu- clide is 0. A K-shell electron is ejected by the internal conversion of a 155-keV g -ray photon. If the binding energy of the K-shell electron is 25keV, what is the kinetic energy of the electron? The radioactive decay is a random process, and it is not possible to tell which atom from a group of atoms disintegrates at a specific time. Thus, one can only talk about the average number of radionuclides disintegrating during a period of time. The disintegration rate of a radionuclide, that is, the number of disinte- grations per unit time, given as −dN/dt, is proportional to the total number of radioactive atoms present at that time.

To improve health purchase 200 mg topamax fast delivery, you first have to stop eating processed foods that do you no good buy cheap topamax 200mg on-line, and even harm you, then eat quality foods that are good for you. Shop the outside, or “perimeter,” of the grocery store where the whole, unprocessed foods are (fruit, vegetables, lean meats, etc. Buy the basics: vegetables (raw/frozen); fruit (raw/frozen); raw nuts and seeds; beans (canned/packaged); whole grains and sprouted whole grain (try non-glutinous whole grains such as brown rice, quinoa, millet, amaranth, buckwheat); water, mineral water, teas, and real juices (100 percent juice); ani- mal foods (optional): eggs, fish, lean fowl, and meat (free- ranged or grass-fed if possible). If you buy oils, get extra-virgin olive oil and/or cold-pressed canola oil for cooking and ground flaxseed or cold-pressed vegetable oils for salads and for cold sauces. Do not buy dairy products at all (not from a cow, goat, or sheep; not milk, cheese, yogurt, ice cream, cottage cheese, kefir, butter, etc. Aside from food intolerance leading to chronic upper re- spiratory infections and gastrointestinal problems, of equal concern is that the early introduction of cow’s milk products in children may increase the risk of type 1 diabetes, which is not reversible. If you want a sweet, refined grain or fatty food, don’t put it in your shopping cart. Then when you choose to eat “junk,” enjoy it—but not too much, and only when you are in control of your health! When you open the refrigerator, the vegetable bin should be filled with vegetables, pre-washed or fresh salad greens, spinach, chard, kale, collards—as much green, leafy vegetables as possible. Green, leafy vegetables are not only nutri- ent packed, but they are also 100 percent non-fattening. I keep blackber- ries, blueberries, raspberries, or strawberries on one of my up- per shelves, and the fruit bin is filled with whatever fruits are in season (or in the produce section), which could be apples, kiwis, nectarines, peaches, plums, oranges, grapefruit, and tangerines. For smoothies and things of that nature, it is easier to keep frozen fruit in your freezer section. Pumpkin seeds are a very nutritous food, but for some reason don’t resonate with me. Generally, I don’t eat a lot of cashews and pistachios because I tend to be sensitive to them as well. In my cupboards I always have cans of cooked beans (mostly organic) and also whole-food, organic types of soups such as min- estrone, lentils, split pea, Cuban black bean, and other vegetarian things like chili. I buy several quarts of an organic vegetarian broth to be used in soups, to stir fry, to “quick cook” my greens, or sometimes cook my pastas or grains in. Your cooking grains can be in the cup- board or freezer, and remember that the first ingredient for any - 153 - staying healthy in the fast lane grain or flour product ideally should be “whole grain” or “sprouted grain. I do use, sparingly, extra-virgin olive oil (monounsaturated fat) for cooking sometimes. I have been more oil-calorie conscious lately, since really becoming aware that added oils are one of the biggest reasons for excess calories in our diet. If you are lean having a small amount of cold-pressed oil or spread or extra-virgin olive oil is probably fine. If you feel you have to have some type of milky substance, there are soy, almond, and other different types of “milks,” including hemp, ha- zelnut, oat, multigrain, and rice milks. If you get fish, poultry, or beef, ideally it should be wild fish and/or poultry or red meat that is grass-fed, free-ranged, and without hormones and antibiotics, or hunted game. I realize some whole-food purists, whom I respect, might look down on eating canned goods or pre-packaged, pre-washed veg- etables. Ideally I’d grow my own vegetables, eat totally from my fruit trees, cook all my beans, and wash my own lettuce and greens every day, but it is not practical for me time-wise. One good thing about modern urbanization is that some businesses have done some smart things to make eating healthy in a busy world easier. By shopping and eating in this way, we can not only be healthy, but we can also help create a new, sustainable economy and jobs cen- - 154 - the triad diet program tered around producing whole, healthy foods that are convenient for people in the busy, modern world. Eating out in the Fast Lane Whether you eat at a fast-food restaurant or a high-end estab- lishment, these simple guidelines can help you reduce your calo- ries, increase your nutrient intake, and do more good than harm with meals eaten away from home. You have to ask to have dairy, es- pecially cheese and sour cream, removed from many dishes. Presently most restaurants just add cheese and sour cream as normal fare to many foods. The goal of eating out healthy, or doing the least amount of harm, is to keep excess calories to a minimum and eat as many unprocessed foods as possible. That is achieved by keeping creamy sauces and added oils off your basic foods; not eating lots of pre- main course snack foods; keeping high-calorie foods out of your main courses (cheeses, creamy sauces, and oils); avoiding deep fried food; avoiding alcohol; and eating as many vegetables in sal- ads, appetizers, or in your main course, as possible. Controlling Food Cravings The key to controlling food cravings is to eat lots of good, whole food that gives you an even blood sugar from time-released carbo- hydrates and adequate protein, and has lots of fiber or natural bulk from water content. In addition, these whole foods should be nu- trient dense, packed with lots of vitamins, minerals, antioxidants, and phytochemicals. Joel Fuhrman (Eat to Live, 2011) and col- leagues recently showed in a study in the Nutrition Journal that the higher the micronutrient density of the diet, the less hunger people had while consuming fewer calories.

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Antibiotic susceptibility of 65 isolates of Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei to 35 antimicrobial agents generic 100 mg topamax with visa. Bichat guidelines for the clinical management of glanders and melioidosis and bioterrorism-related glanders and melioidosis discount 200mg topamax free shipping. Managing Q fever during pregnancy: the benefits of long- term cotrimoxazole therapy. Q fever pneumonia: are clarithromycin and moxifloxacin alternative treatments only? Oropharyngeal aspiration of ricin as a lung challenge model for evaluation of the therapeutic index of antibodies against ricin A-chain for post-exposure treatment. RiVax, a recombinant ricin subunit vaccine, protects mice against ricin delivered by gavage or aerosol. Inhalation toxicology of ricin preparations: animal models, prophylactic and therapeutic approaches to protection. Neutralization of staphylococcal enterotoxin B by soluble, high-affinity receptor antagonists. Evaluation of intravenous zanamivir against experimental influenza A (H5N1) virus infection in the cynomolgus macaques. Minocycline inhibits West Nile virus replication and apoptosis in human neuronal cells. Role of law enforcement response and microbial forensics in investigation of bioterrorism. Bioterrorism and its aftermath: dealing individually and organizationally with the emotional reactions to an anthrax attack. Clinical features, pathogenesis and immunobiology of severe acute respiratory syndrome. Clinical issues and research in respiratory failure from severe acute respiratory syndrome. Seasonality of infectious diseases and severe acute respiratory syndrome—what we don’t know can hurt us. The laboratory diagnosis of severe acute respiratory syndrome: emerging laboratory tests for an emerging pathogen. A case of catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome presenting with acute respiratory distress syndrome as the initial manifestation. Acute respiratory distress syndrome in persons with tickborne relapsing fever—three states, 2004–2005. Selection of Antibiotics in Critical Care 26 Divya Ahuja Department of Medicine, University of South Carolina School of Medicine, Columbia, South Carolina, U. A portion of these patients present with life-threatening community-acquired infections, but all of them are susceptible to hospital-acquired infections on account of such necessary interventions as multiple vascular access lines, hemodynamic monitoring devices, mechanical ventilation, urethral catheter- ization, surgery, and trauma management. The familiar downsides include adverse drug reactions, colonization, and super- infection by opportunistic pathogens, cost, and—of global importance—emergence of increasingly difficult-to-treat drug-resistant strains. The purpose of this chapter is to review some principles pertaining to antibiotic selection. Such teams enhance the likelihood that the major principles for setting guidelines for antimicrobial use, which have been recognized for several decades, will indeed be honored in practice (2). Independent of institution setting, endorsement from hospital administration is essential to ensure sufficient authority, define program outcomes, and obtain necessary infrastructure, but the overarching desideratum is to achieve “buy-in” among all prescribing physicians. Such methods include computer-based surveillance, formulary restriction and preauthorization, prospective audit with intervention and feedback, and continuing medical education (3,5). Numerous studies over the past two decades demonstrate that inadequate antimicrobial therapy leads to increased mortality, prolonged lengths of stay, and poorer outcomes (6–9). Results of a study involving more than 600 patients indicated that the survival rate decreased by 7. Prior to the year 2000, investigations of the effect of initial “appropriate” antimicrobial therapy [usually defined by the use of agents to which the eventual pathogen(s) were determined to be susceptible] focused mainly on bloodstream infections, which allow easy retrospective analysis based on “clean” bacteriologic specimens. Such studies amply confirmed lower mortality rates for patients who received appropriate initial antimicrobial therapy (10,11). Overall mortality rate was 34%; the breakdown was 33% and 43% for patients who got adequate and inadequate antibiotics, respectively (12). Another Sepsis trial from Spain found excess in-hospital mortality of 39% with inadequate initial treatment. Factors to consider when prescribing initial empiric antimicrobial therapy include the following (Table 1): 1. The duration of hospitalization and recent antimicrobial exposure: Patients who have been hospitalized for less than 48 hours and who have not had recent exposure to antibiotics are more likely to have typical “community-acquired” pathogens. Common examples include Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae in pneumonia, E. Critically ill patients are also at risk for yeast infections, with reported rates of 1% to 2% of invasive candidiasis, although it still remains unclear whether to prescribe empiric antifungal drugs in the nonneutropenic patient (14). The clinical syndrome: Pneumonia in patients who have been hospitalized for more than 48 hours is most often due to gram-negative bacilli including P.

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Macroglossia is sometimes said to be associated with Macewen operation A surgical operation to Down syndrome 200 mg topamax visa, but in that disorder the tongue is repair inguinal hernia that was designed by Scottish actually large only in relationship to a smaller-than- surgeon Sir William Macewen generic topamax 200 mg otc. To brovascular disease (macroangiopathy in the determine if the testes are too large, a device called brain), and peripheral vascular disease (macroan- an orchidometer is used that permits a testis to giopathy that affects, for example, vessels in the be compared to a series of plastic ovals (like minia- legs). The opposite macrobiotic Referring to the macrobiota, a of macroorchidism is microorchidism. Macrophages are key play- macrobiotic diet A diet that incorporates ers in the immune response to foreign invaders of Ayurvedic principles of food combining, is based the body, such as infectious microorganisms. They mainly on brown rice and vegetables, and claims to are normally found in the liver, spleen, and connec- lengthen life. For exam- ple, a macroscopic tumor is big enough to see with- macrocephaly An abnormally large head. Macrocephaly can be a normal variant or be a sign macrosomia An overly large body. A child with of pressure within the growing head during child- macrosomia has significant overgrowth, which can hood, such as from hydrocephalus. For example, a macula on to flat skin spots on the skin as macules, as opposed the skin is a small flat spot. Also known as sim- logical disorder of cattle that results from infection ply macula. The most widely accepted theory is that the agent is a modified form of a nor- macular 1 Referring to a macule, a circum- mal cell surface component known as a prion. Also known as bovine spongi- causes partial or total loss of macular vision, caus- form encephalopathy. Although Magendie, foramen of See foramen of some forms of macular degeneration affect young Magendie. This happens because the newly formed blood vessels leak fluid under the magnesium deficiency See deficiency, macula. A per- be especially careful about their magnesium intake son who has any of these changes in vision should because they can accumulate dangerous levels of consult an ophthalmologist without delay. Maimonides’ Daily Prayer of a Physician See This is called macular or central vision. Macules Maintenance therapy may be given to patients who are completely flat and can only be appreciated by visual inspection and not by touch. For example, the teres major mus- of malaria, which is caused by the parasite cle is larger than the teres minor muscle. Falciparum malaria is associated with high levels of parasites in the blood major depression See depression, major. Red blood cells that major histocompatability complex A cluster are infected with the parasite tend to sludge and of genes on chromosome 6 that encode a class of lead to microinfarctions (tiny areas of dead tissue cell surface molecules that are important for anti- due to lack of oxygen) in capillaries in the brain, gen production and are critical in organ transplan- liver, adrenal gland, intestinal tract, kidneys, lungs, tation. For example, osteomalacia is softening of bone, usually due to deficiency of cal- male breast cancer See breast cancer, male. The testes produce and store sperm millions of people and is caused by protozoan par- and are also the body’s main source of male hor- asites from the Plasmodium family. These hormones control the development of can be transmitted by the sting of the Anopheles the reproductive organs and other male character- mosquito or by a contaminated needle or transfu- istics, such as body and facial hair, low voice, and sion. Other symptoms include male internal genitalia The internal genital vomiting, diarrhea, coughing, and yellowing of the structures of the male that are concerned with skin and eyes (jaundice). Treatment includes use of reproduction, including the testis, epididymis, duc- oral or intravenous medication, particularly chloro- tus deferens, seminal vesicle, ejaculatory duct, bul- quine, mefloquine (brand name: Larium), or ato- bourethral gland, and prostate. Anti-malarial drugs can be taken by those traveling male organs of reproduction The sum total of to endemic areas for prevention of malaria. Persons all the genital organs—internal and external—of carrying the sickle cell gene have some protection the male that are concerned with reproduction. Among the many names for malaria also male external genitalia; male internal genitalia. The angle of the male pubic malleus A tiny bone in the middle ear that is arch and the sacrum are narrower as well. One of the dangers of malrotation of malformation, arteriovenous A malformation the intestine is that the intestine may be obstructed of blood vessels in the brain, brainstem, or spinal by abnormal bands or twist on its own blood supply, cord that is characterized by a complex tangled web a condition called volvulus. Malrotation of the intes- of abnormal arteries and veins connected by one tine is usually not apparent until the intestine or more fistulas (abnormal communications). The outlook is good, malignancy A tumor that is malignant (cancer- even when the disease is quite widespread. The most com- with a device that compresses and flattens the mon site of malignant giant cell tumor is the knee. A mammogram can help a health profes- Diagnosis is made by examining a sample of the sional decide whether a lump in the breast is a affected area.

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