Download Adobe Reader PDF    Resize font:

By P. Jerek. Hastings College. 2018.

One poor quality trial with a high risk of bias reported an imprecise treatment effect buy 40mg micardis mastercard. At 6 132 weeks micardis 80 mg without a prescription, Di Lorenzo (2004) also showed a statistically nonsignificant treatment effect of 0. Evidence for the outcome of rhinorrhea at 2 weeks was insufficient to support the use of one 62, 90 treatment over the other. Two poor quality trials with high risk of bias reported inconsistent and imprecise treatment effects. For the outcome of rhinorrhea at 6 weeks, evidence also is 132 insufficient to support the use of one treatment over the other. One poor quality trial with a high risk of bias reported an imprecise treatment effect. At 6 weeks, Di Lorenzo (2004) showed a statistically nonsignificant treatment effect of 0. Evidence for the outcome of sneezing at 2 weeks was insufficient to support the use of one 62, 90 treatment over the other. Two poor quality trials with high risk of bias reported consistent but imprecise treatment effects. For the outcome of rhinorrhea at 6 weeks, evidence also is 132 insufficient to support the use of one treatment over the other. One poor quality trial with a high risk of bias reported an imprecise treatment effect. At 6 weeks, Di Lorenzo (2004) reported a statistically significant treatment effect of 0. Evidence for the outcome of nasal itch at 2 weeks was insufficient to support the use of one 62, 90 treatment over the other. Two poor quality trials with high risk of bias reported consistent but imprecise treatment effects. For the outcome of nasal itch at 6 weeks, evidence also is 132 insufficient to support the use of one treatment over the other. One poor quality trial with a high risk of bias reported an imprecise treatment effect. One of these was a fair quality trial of 300 patients (42 percent of patients reporting this outcome). This was a poor quality trial of 345 patients (49 percent of patients reporting this outcome). Fifty-eight percent of patients were in poor quality trials, and 42 percent were in a fair quality trial. The evidence was therefore insufficient to support the use of one treatment over the other for this outcome. The larger of 131 132 these (92 percent of patients reporting this outcome) was rated good quality, and the smaller (n=40) was rated poor quality due to noncomparable groups at baseline. At 6 weeks, the latter 132 trial showed a statistically nonsignificant treatment effect of 0. The risk of bias was considered low; 92 percent of patients reporting this outcome were in the good quality trial. Eye Symptoms 90 131 Two trials assessed eye symptoms, one at 2 weeks (N=345) and one at 8 weeks (N=454). This trial was rated poor quality due to inappropriate analysis of results (not intention to treat). Evidence for the outcome of eye symptoms at 2 weeks was insufficient to support the use of 90 one treatment over the other. At 8 116 weeks, the evidence also is insufficient to support the use of one treatment over the other. Quality of Life 62, 98 98 Two trials assessed quality of life at 2 weeks using different measures. The larger trial (83 percent of patients reporting this outcome) was rated fair quality and showed a treatment 62 effect of 0. More patients treated with combination therapy reported moderate to significant improvement using a 7-point Likert scale (significantly worse to significantly improved) than patients treated with intranasal corticosteroid monotherapy. Evidence for quality of life outcomes at 2 weeks is insufficient to support one treatment over 62, 98 the other. Adjusted mean differences reported by Carr, 2012, mean differences calculated by authors with available data (Hampel, 2010). Trial size ranged from 102 to 898 patients randomized to treatment groups of interest. In all five trials, the nasal antihistamine was azelastine, and the intranasal corticosteroid was fluticasone propionate. Three 115 trials from the same article used a newly approved combination product comprising both 117, 121 drugs, and two trials used a separate nasal inhaler for each drug in the combination.

Connective Tissue It is mesodermal in origin and functions in supporting 80mg micardis with visa, connecting and transporting generic micardis 20 mg online. It covers wide variety of tissues, but having more intercellular materials or matrix, than cells. It also contains extracellular fibers, which may be tough collagenous fibers or the resilient elastic fibers. Life processes: The following are the important life processes of humans: Metabolism: includes catabolism and anabolism that provides energy and body’s structural and functional components Excitability: Ability to sense changes in and around us. Conductivity: ability to carry the effects of stimulus from part of a cell to another. The human body contains organic compounds such as lipids, proteins, carbohydrates and nucleic acids. The lipids are important forms of storage fuel in addition to providing insulation of the body as a whole or essential component in the structure of plasma membranes, myelin and other membranes. Proteins serve as the structural basis for all enzymes, contractile muscle proteins, connective tissue, such as collagen and elastin and in addition as a fuel (about 15%), or precursor for carbohydrate in the process of gluconeogenesis. Ingested glucose is converted to glycogen and stored in the liver, muscle and adipose tissue. Components of Body System System Components Circulation Heart, blood vessels, blood Digestive system Mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small & large ` intestine, salivary glands, pancreas liver, and gallbladder Respiratory system Nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs Urinary system Kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra Skeletal system Bones, cartilage, joints Muscle system Skeletal muscle Integumentary system Skin, hair, nails Immune system Leukocytes, thymus, bone marrow, tonsils, adenoids, `` lymph nodes, spleen, appendix, gut-associated lymphoid ` tissue, skin-associated lymphoid tissue muscosa ` associated lymphoid tissue Nervous system Brain, spinal cord, peripheral nervous system. Large part of physiology is concerned with regulation mechanisms that act to maintain the constancy of the internal environment. The structure and chemical 6 reactions of living organisms are sensitive to the chemical and physical conditions within and around cells. For multicellular organisms, the surrounding fluid is the interstitial fluid: a component of the extracellular fluid. The intracellular fluid has a high concentration of potassium and low concentration of + - ++ + Na Cl , Mg , and Ca. Body temperature is very crucial for intracellular physiological processes; enzymatic events need a very narrow range of temperature, within the physiological range of temperature compatible with life, cooler temperature favors preservations of cellular structure but slows the rate of chemical reactions carried out by cells. The higher temperature enhances chemical reactions, but may also disrupt the structure of the proteins and other macromolecules within cells. The production of energy for cellular activities requires oxygen and nutrients reaching the cell interior and carbon dioxide and other chemical wastes products be transferred to the environment. Extensive exchange between cells and immediate surroundings, interstitial fluid, occurs by diffusion based on a concentration gradient. Diffusion causes adequate movement of dissolved nutrients, gases and metabolic end products to meet the active needs of the cell, if the distance is short. For the efficiency of diffusion, the diameter of individual cells is usually not more than a few tenths of a millimeter. In the circulatory system, blood rapidly moves between the respiratory system, where gases are exchanged; the kidney where wastes and excess of fluid and solutes are excreted; and the digestive system where nutrients are absorbed. These substances are rapidly transported by blood flow overcoming the diffusion limit on large body size. By maintaining a relatively constant internal environment, multicellular organisms are able to live freely in changing external environment. Responses tend to oppose the change and restore the variable to its set point value. All organ systems have regulatory processes for maintaining a delicate balance in a dynamic steady state. If external environment stresses are very severe beyond the homeostatic processes, the balance can be overwhelmed. Prolonged exposure to cold may lead to an intolerable reduction in the body temperature. Exercise in very hot environment, may result in fluid depletion and an increase in the core temperature, resulting in heat stroke. The cells are much adapted to a regulated core temperature that even a few degree of temperature variations may have fatal consequences. Without clothes and proper protection humans can tolerate only a narrow differences between body temperature and environmental temperature. Factors homeostatically maintained include: • Concentration of nutrient molecules • Concentration of oxygen and carbondioxide • Concentration of waste products • pH • Temperature • Concentration of water, salt, and other electrolytes • Volume (fluids), osmolality, and pressure Homeostasis is essential for survival of cells in that : • Cells need homeostasis for their own survival and for performing specialized function essential to survival of the whole body. Nervous System: Information from the external environment relayed through the nervous system. Nervous system acts through electrical signals to control rapid responses for higher functions e.

buy 40 mg micardis with amex

In contrast generic 80mg micardis otc, in the pulmonary circuit order micardis 40 mg without a prescription, arteries carry blood low in oxygen exclusively to the lungs for gas exchange. Pulmonary veins then return freshly oxygenated blood from the lungs to the heart to be pumped back out into systemic circulation. The systemic circuit moves blood from the left side of the heart to the head and body and returns it to the right side of the heart to repeat the cycle. The arrows indicate the direction of blood flow, and the colors show the relative levels of oxygen concentration. Shared Structures Different types of blood vessels vary slightly in their structures, but they share the same general features. Arteries and arterioles have thicker walls than veins and venules because they are closer to the heart and receive blood that is surging at a far greater pressure (Figure 20. Arteries have smaller lumens than veins, a characteristic that helps to maintain the pressure of blood moving through the system. Together, their thicker walls and smaller diameters give arterial lumens a more rounded appearance in cross section than the lumens of veins. In other words, in comparison to arteries, venules and veins withstand a much lower pressure from the blood that flows through them. Their walls are considerably thinner and their lumens are correspondingly larger in diameter, allowing more blood to flow with less vessel resistance. In addition, many veins of the body, particularly those of the limbs, contain valves that assist the unidirectional flow of blood toward the heart. This is critical because blood flow becomes sluggish in the extremities, as a result of the lower pressure and the effects of gravity. The walls of arteries and veins are largely composed of living cells and their products (including collagenous and elastic fibers); the cells require nourishment and produce waste. Since blood passes through the larger vessels relatively quickly, there is limited opportunity for blood in the lumen of the vessel to provide nourishment to or remove waste from the vessel’s cells. Further, the walls of the larger vessels are too thick for nutrients to diffuse through to all of the cells. Larger arteries and veins contain small blood vessels within their walls known as the vasa vasorum—literally “vessels of the vessel”—to provide them with this critical exchange. Since the pressure within arteries is relatively high, the vasa vasorum must function in the outer layers of the vessel (see Figure 20. The lower pressure within veins allows the vasa vasorum This OpenStax book is available for free at http://cnx. The restriction of the vasa vasorum to the outer layers of arteries is thought to be one reason that arterial diseases are more common than venous diseases, since its location makes it more difficult to nourish the cells of the arteries and remove waste products. There are also minute nerves within the walls of both types of vessels that control the contraction and dilation of smooth muscle. Both arteries and veins have the same three distinct tissue layers, called tunics (from the Latin term tunica), for the garments first worn by ancient Romans; the term tunic is also used for some modern garments. From the most interior layer to the outer, these tunics are the tunica intima, the tunica media, and the tunica externa (see Figure 20. Comparison of Tunics in Arteries and Veins Arteries Veins General Thick walls with small lumens Thin walls with large lumens appearance Generally appear rounded Generally appear flattened Endothelium usually appears wavy due to constriction of Endothelium appears smooth Tunica intima smooth muscle Internal elastic membrane Internal elastic membrane present in larger vessels absent Normally thinner than the tunica externa Smooth muscle cells and Normally the thickest layer in arteries collagenous fibers Smooth muscle cells and elastic fibers predominate (the Tunica media predominate proportions of these vary with distance from the heart) Nervi vasorum and vasa External elastic membrane present in larger vessels vasorum present External elastic membrane absent Normally the thickest layer in veins Normally thinner than the tunica media in all but the largest Collagenous and smooth arteries Tunica externa fibers predominate Collagenous and elastic fibers Some smooth muscle fibers Nervi vasorum and vasa vasorum present Nervi vasorum and vasa vasorum present Table 20. Lining the tunica intima is the specialized simple squamous epithelium called the endothelium, which is continuous throughout the entire vascular system, including the lining of the chambers of the heart. Damage to this endothelial lining and exposure of blood to the collagenous fibers beneath is one of the primary causes of clot formation. Until recently, the endothelium was viewed simply as the boundary between the blood in the lumen and the walls of the vessels. Recent studies, however, have shown that it is physiologically critical to such activities as helping to regulate capillary exchange and altering blood flow. The endothelium releases local chemicals called endothelins that can constrict the smooth muscle within the walls of the vessel to increase blood pressure. Uncompensated overproduction of endothelins may contribute to hypertension (high blood pressure) and cardiovascular disease. Next to the endothelium is the basement membrane, or basal lamina, that effectively binds the endothelium to the connective tissue. The basement membrane provides strength while maintaining flexibility, and it is permeable, allowing materials to pass through it. The thin outer layer of the tunica intima contains a small amount of areolar connective tissue that consists primarily of elastic fibers to provide the vessel with additional flexibility; it also contains some collagenous fibers to provide additional strength. In larger arteries, there is also a thick, distinct layer of elastic fibers known as the internal elastic membrane (also called the internal elastic lamina) at the boundary with the tunica media. Like the other components of the tunica intima, the internal elastic membrane provides structure while allowing the vessel to stretch.

buy micardis 80 mg mastercard

Nausea cheap micardis 80 mg fast delivery, 4000ml/day to promote dysfunction or with action on bacteria results cell growth quality micardis 40 mg. Collect C&S dyscrasias and response thrombocytopenia, prior to beginning to therapy leucopenia, eosinophilia, therapy provide hypothrombinemia. To avoid adverse take some weeks tobe deficit/hyperactivity and cardiac effect, pt over 40 established, treatment panic disorder and those with heart may go up to 6-12 mths. Intramuscular injections Given in the vasuts Spread skin taught to Aspirate to determine if lateralis in children up bring muscle near surface needle enter a vessel. If to 3 of skin, with dartlike there is blood return motion insert needle at discard the needle and 90 degrees meds and start procedure over. Blood administration Start blood transfusion Observe for acute Observe for delayed slow 2 ml/min. Mannitol) there is It acts by increasing the (Mannitol and glucose) amount of substance reabsorption in proximal increase excretion of osmolality of plasma, Use in oliguria and acute which cannot be tubule, descending limb water and sodium glomerular filtrate, and renal failure. Can be blood can come up Treat cauterization Ice pack to forehead or rupture of blood vessels anterior or posterior. May be use to treat hardening of the arteries, heart attack, stroke, arthritis and gangrene because of its ability to remove excess calcium from the body. Trnsmit through Transmitted through replicate only with Hep inconsistently shed in fecal-oral through blood percutanous, B. Spread to acativity semen, blood Hep B infection, may be Occur in india, Africa, person by person and saliva, vaginal secretion. Symptom rash vasculitis, jaundice condition and rapid milder in children than in Icteric phase progression of cirrhosis adult. Eat at the same snack before and after hard candy, sugar cubes Place child on the side Hypoglycemic reaction time each day. Teaching their own insulin with spread with peanut butter through the tubing to give injection. Make sure you institute insulin injection before you stop the infusion if not, there might be prolonged hyperglycemia Crack abuse It crosses the placenta Some infant showed late effect on newborns and enter the fetus. Infant may appear There may be growth normal or develop retardation, small head neurological problem. High dose Ibuprofhen Treat mild to moderate Other reaction affects the Increase toxicity of dig, therapy. Metabolize in liver Nephrotoxicity,; dysuria, Nurse report blurred hematuria, oleguria, vision ringing and Therapeutic effect takes azotemia, blurred vision. Use to anoxia, asphyxia, pattern is achieved life 3-5 min stimulate the letdown bradycardia (contraction frequency of reflex. Produced in collaboration with the Ethiopia Public Health Training Initiative, The Carter Center, the Ethiopia Ministry of Health, and the Ethiopia Ministry of Education. Important Guidelines for Printing and Photocopying Limited permission is granted free of charge to print or photocopy all pages of this publication for educational, not-for-profit use by health care workers, students or faculty. All copies must retain all author credits and copyright notices included in the original document. Under no circumstances is it permissible to sell or distribute on a commercial basis, or to claim authorship of, copies of material reproduced from this publication. Rao, Amare Mengistu, Solomomon Worku, Eshetu Legesse, Musie Aberra, Dawit All rights reserved. Except as expressly provided above, no part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without written permission of the author or authors. This material is intended for educational use only by practicing health care workers or students and faculty in a health care field. Finally, we thank the department heads and the faculty heads of the health institutions for their cooperation to participate in the preparation of the lecture note. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to describe the pharmacological basis of therapeutics in order to maximize the benefits and minimize the risks of drugs to recipients. This lecture note on pharmacology is primarily a note for undergraduate health science students such as health officer, nursing, midwifery and laboratory technology students. However, other health professionals whose career involves drug therapy or related aspects should also find much of the material relevant. The goal is to empower the practitioner through an understanding of the fundamental scientific principles of pharmacology. The effects of prototypical drugs on physiological and pathophysiological processes are clearly explained to promote understanding. The selection of the drugs is based on the national drugs list for Ethiopia and on the accumulated experience of teaching pharmacology to many health profession students. The chapters open with a list of objectives to guide the reader, and most end with questions which challenge the reader’s understanding of the concepts covered with in the chapter. Most sections have an introduction that provides an overview of the material to be covered. Readers are encouraged to refer the references mentioned for further information and we hope that this material will be a valuable companion in our pursuit of a fundamental understanding in a most fascinating area of clinical knowledge, pharmacology.

9 of 10 - Review by P. Jerek
Votes: 276 votes
Total customer reviews: 276
Proud partner of: