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By E. Denpok. Institute of Paper Science and Technology. 2018.

Box 100 Organizational names for affiliations not in English Give the affiliations of all authors or only the first author order motilium 10mg overnight delivery. Box 101 Names for cities and countries not in English Use the English form for names of cities and countries if possible motilium 10 mg sale. Bases neurofisiologicas del dolor: dolor referido [Neurophysiological basis of pain: referred pain]. Standard contribution to a database on the Internet with complete publication information for the item 6. Contribution to a database on the Internet with title in a language other than English Publication Information for a Contribution to a Database on the Internet (required) General Rules for Publication Information If the contribution is an item published elsewhere and cited in the database, provide complete publication information according to the other chapters in this guide, i. Box 107 Non-English names for months Translate names of months into English Abbreviate them using the first three letters Capitalize them Examples: mayo = May luty = Feb brezen = Mar Box 108 Seasons instead of months Translate names of seasons into English Capitalize them Do not abbreviate them For example: balvan = Summer outomno = Fall hiver = Winter pomlad = Spring Box 109 Date of publication and date of copyright Some publications have both a date of publication and a date of copyright. Box 110 No date of publication, but a date of copyright A copyright date is identified by the symbol, the letter "c", or the word copyright preceding the date. Study protocol for measuring the effects of work-site exercise on the physical fitness of older workers. Standard contribution to a database on the Internet with complete publication information for the item Date of Update/Revision for a Contribution to a Database on the Internet (required) General Rules for Date of Update/Revision Contributions to databases may be updated or revised separately from the database as a whole Begin update/revision information with a left square bracket Use whatever word for update or revision is provided, such as updated or modified Always give the year of update/revision Convert roman numerals to arabic numbers. Look for the date accompanied by such words as updated, modified, revised, reviewed: At the top or bottom of the first screen or the bottom of the last screen of the contribution In a specific field if the contribution is subdivided into fields In the source code for the contribution if it is displayed by the Web browser Box 114 Non-English names for months Translate names of months into English Abbreviate them using the first three letters Capitalize them Examples: mayo = May luty = Feb brezen = Mar Box 115 Seasons instead of months Translate names of seasons into English Capitalize them Do not abbreviate them For example: balvan = Summer outomno = Fall hiver = Winter pomlad = Spring Databases/Retrieval Systems on the Internet 1335 Box 116 Both a date of update and a date of revision Various words are used to show that the content of a contribution has changed. Box 117 Database also has a date of update/revision Contributions to databases may be updated or revised separately from the database as a whole. Standard contribution to a database on the Internet with complete publication information for the item Connective Phrase for a Contribution to a Database on the Internet (required) General Rules for Connective Phrase Place a space and the word "In" after the title (and any dates) of the contribution Follow "In" with a colon and a space Examples for Connective Phrase 1. Contribution to a database on the Internet with extent provided by the database 9. Standard contribution to a database on the Internet with complete publication information for the item Acquisition Number for a Contribution to a Database (optional) General Rules for Acquisition Number Give the record number or other acquisition number assigned to the contribution by the database Databases/Retrieval Systems on the Internet 1339 Precede the number with the identifying wording used by the database, such as Record No. Contribution to a database on the Internet with title in a language other than English Notes for a Contribution to a Database on the Internet (optional) General Rules for Notes Notes is a collective term for any further useful information given after the citation itself Complete sentences are not required Be brief Specific Rules for Notes System requirements Other types of material to include in notes Box 124 System requirements System requirements describe the software and hardware needed to view the contribution on the database. Box 125 Other types of material to include in notes The notes element may be used to provide any further information. Single-use acupuncture needles: scanning electron-microscopy of needle-tips [review]. Contribution to a database on the Internet with a note Examples of Citations to Contributions to Databases on the Internet 1. Standard contribution to a database on the Internet without a separate date for the item Kadonaga J. Standard contribution to a database on the Internet with a separate date for the item Bunyavejchevin S, Phupong V. Number of coronary bypass operations and percutaneous coronary interventions per year 1980-2004, United Kingdom. Contribution to a database on the Internet with organization as author British Cardiovascular Intervention Society. Diagnostiek en classificatie van orofaciale pijnen in de eerste lijn [Diagnosis and classification of orofacial pain by dental and general practitioners]. Contribution to a database on the Internet with date of update/revision Bunyavejchevin S, Phupong V. Contribution to a database on the Internet with extent provided by the database Bunyavejchevin S, Phupong V. Contribution to a database on the Internet with extent calculated Jordan S, Schnepf M, Boeckner L. Contribution to a database on the Internet with an acquisition number Bunyavejchevin S, Phupong V. Accurate measurements of dynamics and reproducibility in small genetic networks [dataset]. Homepages Sample Citation and Introduction Citation Rules with Examples Examples B. Parts of Web Sites Sample Citation and Introduction Citation Rules with Examples Examples A. Homepages vary greatly in size and complexity, reflecting the Web site which they introduce. A citation to a Web site is made primarily from the information found on a homepage. Internet sites disappear with great frequency, and users of a citation must be given some other identifying information if they are to locate sites in the future. Web Sites 1347 Some elements, however, are more difficult to locate when citing homepages. Some elements require expansion for an Internet citation to provide needed information.

Unplanned conditions motilium 10 mg mastercard, poor housing buy 10 mg motilium fast delivery, and the presence of domestic urbanisation has also been central to the re-emergence of animals in and around houses. Air and water pollution, The looming threat of explosive urban epidemics which exist in many cities, can hinder vector proliferation. The urban environment oers favourable grounds for A study examining phlebotomine proliferation in the spread of epidemics, mainly because of high- Marrakech, showed that urbanisation generally decreased population densities. Destruction of vector habitats, improved improved socioeconomic status is generally housing conditions, and improved access to preventive accompanied by a decline in the prevalence of hepatitis and curative measures all partly account for this decreased A. However, substantial variations in malaria substantial decrease in hepatitis A infections in transmission exist in dierent areas of the same city, Singapore, and a 50% drop in the seroprevalence of thus reecting disparities in environmental conditions hepatitis A antibodies since 1975. Increased mobility has provided new income countries, exposure to hepatitis A virus is opportunities for emerging diseases, such as for severe thought to be universal before age 10 years. In cities, numerous resources are present, and shows how fast infections can spread worldwide. Patients with unfamiliar diseases resources, and access to media and modern communication may consult physicians who are unaware of the existence allow urban residents to have increased visibility and a of some imported diseases. With the arrival of migrants stronger political voice than their rural counterparts. Because cities are becoming major travel potential to spread widely is of international interest. In Singapore, the re-emergence of dengue is of leishmaniasis or rabies in the cities visited by travellers. Clearly a comprehensive global emerging economies change how travellers perceive approach to disease surveillance, control, and prevention risks. Large gatherings like the urbanisation and to the distinctive epidemiological Olympic Games and the football World Cup now take pattern of transmittable diseases in cities. The Whenever possible, local governments should epidemiological transition in cities and the changes in incorporate health concerns into urban policies, such as the perception of risk by travellers visiting them oblige economic promotion and community development. The specialists in travel medicine to adjust their Healthy Cities programme is a trans-sectoral approach recommendations frequently. In parallel, pilot implementation of dry-sanitation toilets in informal chronic diseases have progressed because of changes in settlements. Features and determinants of urban health Search strategy and selection criteria status. Migrant slums, and infectious diseases, and references from workers and schistosomiasis in the Gezira, Sudan. Articles were selected on the basis of urinary schistosomiasis in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Migration preparedness for worldwide outbreaks, and containment and urban schistosomiasis. The as an international and worldwide issue, and appropriate prolonged epidemic of anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in resources should be allocated to reduce inequities. The burden of Acknowledgments diarrhoea, shigellosis, and cholera in North Jakarta, Indonesia: We thank Jean-Claude Bolay at Ecole Polytechnique Fdrale de Lausanne ndings from 24 months surveillance. Intestinal helminthiases among rural and urban schoolchildren in south-western Nigeria. Leptospira interrogans among domestic rats from an urban setting highly endemic for leptospirosis in Brazil. Measuring the global burden of disease and epidemiological transitions: 2002 2030. Global and regional burden of disease and risk factors, 2001: systematic analysis of population health data. Marked dierences health implications for children living in outlying urban settlements in the prevalence of chloroquine resistance between urban and in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil. Household multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in urban and rural India and structure and urban services: neglected targets in the control implications for prevention. Risk factors for Mycobacterium tuberculosis in selected urban and rural areas in infection during a severe dengue outbreak in El Salvador in 2000. Why do poor people behave results of a household-based seroepidemiologic survey, December poorly? New York: Oxford disease among rural-to-urban migrants in China: implications for University Press, 2000. Household survey of urban and rural southwest Nigeria: its cultural, social and dengue infection in central Brazil: spatial point pattern attitudinal context. Slum health: diseases of Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 2005; neglected populations.

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As such motilium 10mg otc, we do not think such a payment would challenge the current consensus in any ethically significant way purchase motilium 10mg fast delivery. Given these concerns, coupled with a lack of evidence as to the likely effectiveness of such an intervention, we do not think it should be pursued. Moreover, while those who are neutral about donation after death might be swayed by such an incentive, it seems unlikely that a person actively opposed to the use of their bodily material after death (for example because of concerns about the integrity of the body) would be tempted to act against those beliefs. Donors cannot be physically harmed and are highly unlikely to have signified their willingness to donate in these circumstances if they had strong objections. While there is no direct evidence as to how effective or popular such a system would be, the fact that a very similar system exists for covering cremation costs of those who donate their bodies to medical science (which appears to be regarded by both professionals and families as an appropriate acknowledgment of the persons 617 gift), suggests that the extension of such a scheme to organ donors would not be detrimental either to professional values or the common good. Another study, published subsequently, concluded by contrast that opt-out systems are associated with relatively higher rates of deceased donation but also with relatively lower rates 619 of living donation. We are also aware of research modelling the possible effects on organ 620 supply of an opt-out system, based on differing levels of individual and family opt-out. We note that, while such models demonstrate a potential increase in the number of available organs (and hence lives saved) on the basis of particular assumptions about numbers opting out, such assumptions clearly remain to be tested. First we suggest that initial assumptions as to the numbers of additional organs that might be obtained in such a way should be modest, if families 621 do indeed continue to feel genuinely free to express any objections they feel. Indeed, if families in such cases felt coerced in any way, then this would potentially render their role meaningless. Similarly, if families felt relieved from the requirement actively to make the decision, this too might lead to fewer refusals. We are therefore hesitant to rely on research reporting on how people say they would respond to the introduction of a soft opt-out system including all the protections described above. We note, however, that the Welsh Assembly has expressed a 623 clear intention to introduce such a scheme in Wales. Such an approach would seek to avoid the risk that people feel coerced into making a decision, but would also enable those who are genuinely unsure at the time of answering the question to indicate that they are happy to delegate their decision to their family, and that they are not actively opposed. The Government will examine thoroughly the detail of the Bill when it is introduced to the National Assembly. The possibility of explicit refusal can only strengthen the significance of approval: at the same time it allows for strength of personal feeling to be expressed in both directions (approval and disapproval). The importance of this cannot be overemphasised when the subject matter is bodily material. In such cases, we endorse the current position that the option of refusal should rest with familial associates of the deceased. The clear aim should be to ensure that the donor is in the same financial position as a result of their donation, as they would have been if they had not donated. Where such costs or losses are incurred as a direct result of donation, they should be met in full. However, there is at present little evidence to support the effectiveness of such a measure, compared with the effectiveness of the better organisational arrangements and full reimbursement of financial losses incurred in 633 the process of donation recommended above. While the time of each may be valued differently by their respective employers, reimbursement seeks only to return them to the financial position they would have occupied, but for their decision to donate. Clearly the physical risks of egg donation are not, in themselves, affected by whether a woman agrees to donate eggs primarily out of concern for other women unable to conceive with their own eggs, or primarily for reward. Reliable data regarding risks are scarce, especially in the case of repeated donation. Donors may present themselves several times at the same center or at different centers. In order to obtain information on repeated donations and to be able to verify legal restrictions on donations, it is essential firstly to establish national registers of gametes donors, and secondly for centers to participate in the collection of national or international data. Post-donation care should be provided to the best possible 634 standards at home or abroad. Good-quality evidence on these effects is essential in order for proper concern to be 634 Shenfield F, Pennings G, De Mouzon J et al. On our Intervention Ladder, egg-sharing arrangements are classified as being on rung 5: benefits in kind (treatment services) that are associated with what is being donated (a proportion of the eggs produced in response to hormonal stimulation). The limited evidence that currently exists on the experiences and attitudes of those donating some of their eggs in order to access treatment they could not otherwise afford suggests that this is not a choice that most women would make if treatment were available to them in other circumstances (see paragraph 3. In the context of egg donation for research, the Wellcome Trust has suggested that it is appropriate to limit the number of times a woman can undergo the procedure to donate eggs. We also note that, in circumstances where would-be egg sharers do not in fact produce enough eggs for their own treatment and that of another woman, they will be entitled to use all the eggs 637 for their own treatment, while still receiving the promised rebate on their treatment fees. As we have argued, a clear distinction can be made between the position of donors who in return receive a benefit directly associated with their donation (in the case of egg sharers, the opportunity to receive treatment that would otherwise not be available to them), and those who are invited to donate on the basis of simple financial reward. Like healthy volunteers in first-in-human trials, women who donate eggs for research undergo medical procedures that involve discomfort, inconvenience and potential health risk, with the aim of enhancing scientific knowledge and hence potentially producing long-term health benefit (see Box 1. While the willingness of donors of eggs for research to contribute to scientific knowledge may certainly be understood in terms of solidarity (a willingness to contribute to the collective good of research), altruism does not appear in this context to be a key value underpinning that contribution to solidarity. Rather, we suggest that another value, justice, becomes applicable here: if women are prepared to undertake these procedures to benefit scientific endeavour and the wider community, is it not just that their contribution should be explicitly recognised?

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Early diagnosis and treatment Adequate nutrition Immunization against respiratory tract infections Reduction of indoor smoke pollution Coughing or sneezing into a cloth cheap motilium 10 mg line, or turning away from other people 43 Study Session 36 Louse-Borne Diseases: Relapsing Fever and Typhus Study Session 36 Louse-Borne iseases: Relapsing Fever and Typhus Introduction You already learned about the most widespread vector-borne disease in Ethiopia malaria cheap motilium 10mg with mastercard, transmitted by mosquitoes (Study Sessions 5 12 in Part 1 of this Module). Two other vector-borne diseases of public health importance in Ethiopia are the subject of this study session. They are caused by different bacteria, but are transmitted by the same vector the human body louse (plural, lice). The diseases are louse-borne relapsing fever and louse- borne typhus, which are classied as febrile illnesses because the symptoms always include high fever. In this study session, you will learn about the causes, modes of transmission, symptoms and methods of prevention of these diseases. This will help you to identify patients and quickly refer them to the nearest health centre or hospital for specialist treatment. You are also expected to report any cases of these louse-borne diseases to the District Health Ofce, so that coordinated action can be taken to prevent an epidemic from spreading in your community. Learning Outcomes for Study Session 36 When you have studied this session, you should be able to: 36. The human body louse (species name, Pediculus humanus humanus) is commonly found in the clothes, bedding and on the bodies of people living in overcrowded and insanitary conditions, where there is poor personal hygiene. When body lice are found, for example in clothes, the articles are said to be louse-infested. The bites cause an allergic reaction in the person s skin, which becomes inamed and itches, causing the person to scratch the area. Lice are transmitted from person to person during close contact and when sharing bedding in which eggs have been laid. It is one of the epidemic-prone diseases that can cause small, or large-scale epidemics anywhere in Ethiopia, with an estimated 10,000 cases annually. The bacteria multiply in the gut of the louse, but the infection is not transmitted to new hosts when the louse bites a healthy person. Instead, humans acquire the infection when they scratch their bites and accidentally crush a louse, releasing its infected body uids onto their skin. The bacteria enter through breaks in the skin, typically caused by scratching the itchy louse bites. After entering into the skin, the bacteria multiply in the person s blood and they can also be found in the liver, lymph glands, spleen and brain. The symptoms continue for three to nine days, while the immune system of the patient makes antibodies that attach to the bacteria and clear them from the blood, and the patient appears to recover. The numbers of bacteria gradually increase, and four to seven days after recovering from the rst episode of fever, the patient relapses, i. Almost all the organs are involved and there will be pain in the abdomen and an enlarged liver and spleen, in addition to the other symptoms. Without treatment with special antibiotics, 30% to 70% of cases can die from complications such as pneumonia and infection in the brain, leading to coma (a state of deep unconsciousness) and death. Precautions should be taken by you and by health workers in the hospital or health centre, to avoid close contact with a patient with relapsing fever, to prevent acquiring the infection. Louse-borne typhus (also known as epidemic typhus, jail fever or tessibo beshita in Amharic) is similar in many ways to relapsing fever. They are extremely small bacteria called Rickettsia prowazekii (named after two doctors who died of typhus when they were researching into the disease). Louse-borne typhus has caused major epidemics over many centuries, resulting in millions of deaths during war, famine and mass displacement. The Rickettsia bacteria acquired during a blood meal from an infected person multiply in the gut of the louse and pass out of its body in the louse s faeces, which are deposited on the person s skin. The louse bites are itchy and when the person scratches them, the louse faeces are rubbed into breaks in the skin. This is how the typhus bacteria are transmitted to healthy people when an infected louse gets into their clothes or bedding. After an incubation period of about one to two weeks the symptoms begin suddenly, with severe headache and fever rising rapidly to 38. They also experience very severe muscle pain, sensitivity to light, lethargy and falling blood pressure. Refer patients suspected of having typhus to the nearest health centre or hospital, where they will be treated by doctors with special antibiotics. Typhus is an epidemic-prone disease, so search actively for other people locally with a similar illness and report all suspected cases to the District Health Ofce. In addition to the above actions, you should also educate your community about how to prevent these louse-borne diseases. As we said earlier, these diseases are associated with overcrowding and insanitary conditions in other words, they are associated with poverty. They are best prevented by addressing the underlying socioeconomic circumstances that promote louse infestation: overcrowding, poverty, homelessness and population displacement. However, you should also educate people in your community to take the following preventive actions:.

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