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How This Book Is Organized Anatomy and physiology are very far-reaching topics order famvir 250mg, so it only makes sense that this workbook is divided into parts buy famvir 250 mg low price, each of which is divided into a number of chapters. The following sections preview the part topics to give you an idea of what you can find where. Part I: Building Blocks of the Body We begin at the very beginning — chemistry — because it’s a very good place to start. Stop moaning and groaning — chemistry really isn’t as difficult as it’s been made out to be. It’s an integral part of understanding what the body’s cells are doing and how they’re doing it. We cover the basics from the atom on up and introduce the processes that keep the whole package operating smoothly. Cells are living things, just like the bodies of which they are a part, and they have the same cycles as all living things do: They grow, mature, reproduce, and die. By layering thousands upon thousands of similar cells on top of one another, tissues with unique structures and functions are formed. This part covers the primary types of tissues and where you’ll find them in the body. In this part, we breathe life into the respiratory system with a close look at the lungs and everything attached to them, we feed your hunger for knowledge about how nutrients fuel the anatomical package, and we get to the heart of the well-oiled human machine to show how the central pump is the hardest-working muscle in the entire body. None of that matters without a strong defense system, so we touch on the lymphatic system. And don’t forget: All that metabolizing is bound to lead to some waste and by-products; we package up the trash and show you how the body takes it to the dumpster. But we do take a close look at perpetuating humanity through reproductive successes. This part takes the male and female halves of the equation one at a time, delving into the parts of the male and female reproductive systems as well as the functions of those parts. We already have gotten things moving before this part, but now it’s time to study how nerves and hormones keep things hopping. In this part, we lay out the basic building blocks of the nervous system, help you wire it all together, and then show you how the body sends messages flying along a solid spine of brainy material. After that, we come to our senses with an overview of the eyes and ears (we cover taste in the digestive system chapter, touch in the skin chapter, and smell in the respi- ratory chapter). Then we turn hormonal to absorb what the endocrine system does, including observing the functions of the ringmaster of this multi-ring circus, the pitu- itary gland. We also delve into the various hormones coursing through your body, why they’re there, and how they do what they do. First we identify ten Web sites that can help you advance your knowledge of anatomy and physiology. Then we give you a list of ten key things to keep in mind as you study this illustrious and fascinating topic. Icons Used in This Book Throughout this book, you’ll find symbols in the margins that highlight critical ideas and information. Here’s what they mean: The tip icon gives you juicy tidbits about how best to remember tricky terms or con- cepts in anatomy and physiology. Anatomy & Physiology Workbook For Dummies 4 The example icon marks questions for you to try your hand at. We give you the answer straightaway to get your juices flowing and your brain warmed up for more practice questions. The remember icon highlights key material that you should pay extra attention to in order to keep everything straight. The sizzling bomb icon — otherwise known as the warning icon — points out areas and topics where common pitfalls can lead you astray. Where to Go from Here If you purchased this book and you’re already partway through an anatomy and physi- ology class, check the table of contents and zoom ahead to whichever segment your instructor is covering currently. When you have a few spare minutes, review the chap- ters that address topics your class already has covered. If you haven’t yet started an anatomy and physiology class, you have the freedom to start wherever you like (although we suggest that you begin with Chapter 1) and proceed onward and upward through the glorious machine that is the human body! That means getting down to the true basics: chemistry, cells, cell division, and how tissues are formed. This part helps you discover that chemistry isn’t all that tough, particularly when you focus on the organic elements involved in the chemistry of life. You look at how that chem- istry takes place inside the bricks-and-mortar of the body (its cells) and take things a step further with the wonders of self-perpetuation through mitotic cell division.

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It reduces symptoms of flushing famvir 250 mg without a prescription, diarrhoea or protein which in females controls development of the primary skin rash buy cheap famvir 250mg on-line, but does not reduce the size of the tumour. It is more ovarian follicle, stimulates granulosa cell proliferation and effective than bromocriptine (now mainly used in Parkinson’s increases oestrogen production, while in males it increases disease, see Chapter 21) in lowering somatotropin levels in spermatogenesis. It induces ovula- patients with acromegaly, but it is not generally an acceptable tion, stimulates thecal oestrogen production and initiates and alternative to surgery, and must be administered parenterally maintains the corpus luteum in females. Gastro-intestinal side effects are minimized if with secondary ovarian failure in whom treatment with octreotide is given between meals. Treatment must be super- octreotide formulation in poly (alkyl cyanoacrylate) nanocap- vised by specialists experienced in the use of gonadotrophins sules is administered intramuscularly once a month. Gonadotrophins are also effective in the treatment of These include: oligospermia due to secondary testicular failure. They are, of • gastro-intestinal upset, including anorexia, nausea, course, ineffective in primary gonadal failure. Ultrasound evaluation of the gall bladder is be used in a single intravenous dose to assess anterior pituitary recommended before starting therapy and if biliary reserve. Buserelin is given Key points intranasally, and goserelin is usually given by subcutaneous injection/implant into the anterior abdominal. Induction of ovulation prior for acromegaly when conventional treatment has failed. The use of oxytocin for induction of labour is Menopausal symptoms are common in addition to decreased described in Chapter 41. Key points Pharmacokinetics Physiology of the pituitary Gonadorelin analogues are peptides and are given paren- Anterior pituitary terally. Tetracosactide is used as a diagnostic test in the Answer evaluation of patients in whom Addison’s disease (adrenal insuf- The most likely cause of his symptoms worsening in the first ficiency) is suspected. Thus this patient should be given adequate analge- and paraventricular hypothalamic nuclei and transported sia and an androgen receptor antagonist (e. Goserelin can then be restarted in for storage and subsequent release (neurosecretion). Corticotropin-releasing hormone and its receptors; an evaluation at the transcription level in vivo. Combined therapy with pharmacology of nonpeptide vasopressin receptor antagonists. The duration of therapy depends on the nature of the Bacteria are a common cause of disease, but have beneficial as infection and response to treatment. For example, the gastrointestinal bac- The British National Formulary provides a good guide to ini- terial flora of the healthy human assists in preventing colo- tial treatments for common bacterial infections. The widespread use of antibacterial regional variations in patterns of bacterial resistance, these drugs has led to the appearance of multiresistant bacteria may be modified according to local guidelines. Consequently, antibacterial therapy should not be information on local prevalence of organisms and sensitivities. It is the drugs that kill bacteria and bacteriostatic drugs that prevent minimal concentration of a particular agent below which bac- their reproduction, elimination depending on host defence terial growth is not prevented. This difference is relative, as bacteriostatic drugs useful information for comparing the susceptibility of organ- are often bactericidal at high concentrations and in the pres- isms to antibacterial drugs, it is an in vitro test in a homoge- ence of host defence mechanisms. In clinical practice, the dis- nous culture system, whilst in vivo the concentration at the tinction is seldom important unless the body’s defence mechanisms are depressed. Mechanism of action Antibacterial agent The choice of antibacterial drug, together with its dose and route of administration, depend on the infection (in particular Inhibition of cell wall synthesis Penicillins the responsible pathogen(s), but also anatomical site and Cephalosporins severity), absorption characteristics of the drug, and patient Monobactams Vancomycin Table 43. Yes No Yes No Treat with appropriate antibiotic Treat with most appropriate antibiotic No antibiotic according to predominant causative treatment organism(s) and sensitivities (including local sensitivity patterns) Consider other measures (e. Yes No Complete course Consider of treatment – alternative (or additional) diagnosis – poor penetrance of antibiotic to site of infection – possible change in antibiotic therapy Figure 43. Current guidelines therefore emphasize the following concentration which one might predict to be bactericidal (e. The dates on by spontaneous mutation) that exist within the bacterial tombstones in Victorian cemeteries should be required read- population by elimination of the sensitive strain by ing for over-enthusiastic prescribers and medical students! Thus the incidence of drug resistance is related to (Whole families of infants died in infancy, followed by their the prescription of that drug. In such patients, all dental (plasmids), or by passage of the information by procedures involving dento-gingival manipulation will require bacteriophage (transduction). In this way, transfer of antibiotic prophylaxis, as will certain genito-urinary, gastro- genetic information concerning drug resistance intestinal, respiratory or obstetric/gynaecological procedures. The latest guidelines (2006) by the Working Party of the British Society for Antimicrobial Mechanisms of drug resistance can be broadly divided into Chemotherapy can be found at http://jac. Prophylaxis should be restricted to cases where the or an altered organelle with reduced drug-binding procedure commonly leads to infection, or where properties (e. The antimicrobial agent should preferably be bactericidal and directed against the likely pathogen. The aim is to provide high plasma and tissue concentrations of an appropriate drug at the time of bacterial Most infections can be treated with a single agent. Intramuscular injections can usually be there are situations in which more than one antibacterial drug given with the premedication or intravenous injections at is prescribed concurrently: the time of induction.

Some are concerned about health problems (arthritis and back problems) discount famvir 250mg fast delivery, yet exercise can actually benefit and improve these problems purchase 250 mg famvir visa. Regardless of your health status, age, or current fitness level, there are activities that you can do to improve your health. So now that we have put aside the common obstacles, let’s take a look at the various types of exercise and how to build them into our lifestyle. Examples include brisk walking, swimming, biking, aerobics, dancing, and rollerblading. These exercises help burn calories, and also improve car- diovascular and respiratory (lung) function by conditioning the lungs to use more oxygen while increasing your heart’s efficiency (decreasing heart rate). If you are currently not exer- cising, then start slowly—five minutes on your first day and then increase gradually. Morning is best because you will have more energy and will continue to burn calories for several hours afterward. To determine the intensity level for optimal cardiovascular (and fat-burning) ben- efits, check your heart rate. The activity should increase your heart rate to 60–80 percent of your maximum rate for 30 minutes or longer. Beginners should aim for 60 percent, while more advanced exercisers can aim for 80 percent. For example, if you are 40 years old: 220 – 40 = 180 60–80 percent of 180 = 108–144 You should keep your heart rate between 108 and 144 beats per minute for 30 minutes. Other ways to gauge your intensity level are: Breath sound check: Your breathing should be heavier and audible. For example, when a brisk 30-minute walk becomes easy, add hand weights or walk on hills. This can be achieved with weightlifting, ex- ercise machines, bands/tubes, using your own body weight, or lifting heavy objects. These activities are particularly important for older adults because they help prevent and slow the muscle and bone loss that occurs with aging. Try to spend 20–30 minutes three to four times a week doing resistance activities. For example, do chest and triceps on Monday, back and biceps on Wednesday, and legs and shoulders on Friday. Pick two exercises per body part and do two or three sets of 8–12 repetitions of that exercise. This is largely due to a very powerful amino acid in protein—essential to early muscle repair—called leucine. Stretch slowly and gently, breathe deeply, and hold each position for at least 10 seconds. Guidelines from the National Academy of Sciences and the Institute of Medicine (used by Canada and the United States) recommend that, regardless of weight, adults and children should spend a total of at least one hour each day in moderately intense physical activity. This recommendation takes into consideration the increased caloric intake of our population, our lack of activity, and our rising prevalence of obesity. Otherwise, try to set aside an hour three to four times a week and on the other days, use some of the above ideas to work more movement into your day. In fact, it has been found that those who work out five times a week lose three times as much fat as those who exercise only two or three times weekly. Aerobic activities do burn calories, but resistance training plays a stronger role because it builds lean muscle mass, which boosts your metabolism, burns calories, and encourages the body to utilize fat more efficiently as fuel. If you do too much too soon, you may injure yourself or become too discouraged to continue. Here are some important points to keep in mind: • Before you start an exercise program, consult with your doctor, especially if you have any health conditions or are taking medication. Set reasonable goals, be consistent with your exer- cises, and you will see both the physical and emotional rewards. These essential but often overlooked factors are paramount for physical and emotional well-being and disease prevention. In this chapter we take a closer look at the value of sleep, how to get a better night’s rest, and how to deal with stress more effectively. While we think of sleep as a relaxing and passive state, there is actually quite a lot going on in the body during sleep. There are five stages of sleep defined by brain wave activity, muscle tone, and eye movement. During stages three and four, the body goes into a deeper sleep, and the brain produces what are called delta waves. Delta sleep is our deepest sleep, the point when our brain waves are least like what they are when we are awake. It is during this time that the body’s major organs and regulatory systems are busy working on repair and regeneration and certain hormones, such as growth hormone, are secreted. The exact amount of sleep needed varies among individuals, but is thought to be between seven and nine hours. An occasional sleepless night is not a concern, but persistent difficulty in falling asleep, waking up too early, awakening frequently during the night, or waking up feeling tired and not refreshed could indicate insomnia.

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Protozoa: Microscopic discount 250 mg famvir with amex, one-celled organisms that can be free-living or parasitic in nature 250 mg famvir free shipping. They can multiply in humans, which contributes to their survival and also permits serious infections to develop from just a single organism. When the organisms are swallowed, they move into the intestine, where they can reproduce and cause disease. You can also contract parasites from intimate contact (oral-anal) with someone who has them. In some people, intestinal parasites do not cause any symptoms or the symptoms may be mild. In others they can cause horrible gastrointestinal problems, weight loss, irritability, and more. There are also a variety of lifestyle measures that can reduce your risk of contracting parasites. Fecal testing (exami- nation of your stool) can identify both helminths and protozoa. It is important to do stool tests before taking any anti-diarrheal drugs or antibiotics. Natural products, while helpful, are not as effective and take longer to work compared to prescription drugs. Dietary Recommendations Foods to include: • Boost intake of fibre, which helps improve elimination. Lifestyle Suggestions To reduce the risk of contracting parasites, consider these tips: • Wash your hands after using the toilet, changing diapers, handling animals, or before eat- ing or preparing food. Do not drink untreated stream water while camping as it is almost P invariably contaminated with giardia, even in North America. Take probiotic supple- ments while travelling to help maintain normal gastrointestinal flora. Top Recommended Supplements Herbal products: Black walnut, wormwood, oil of oregano, and ginger have anti-parasitic properties. Probiotics: Beneficial bacteria such as Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteria can help in the prevention and treatment of parasites by maintaining healthy gut flora and reducing over- growth of parasites and other pathogens. Propolis: A resinous substance collected by bees from the leaf buds and bark of trees. It has antimicrobial properties and may help protect against parasitic intestinal infections. Prelimi- nary research found that propolis extract was helpful in eliminating giardiasis in adults and children. Complementary Supplements Berberine: A compound found in many plants, such as Oregon grape and goldenseal. Preliminary studies have shown that berberine can be used successfully to treat giardia infec- tions. Digestive enzymes: Aid digestion and make your intestinal tract less hospitable to parasites. See your doctor for proper diagnosis and discuss the benefits and risks of drug therapy. Boost intake of fibre, drink lots of purified water, and eat more raw garlic, pumpkin seeds, pomegranates, beets, and carrots. Wash your hands after using the toilet and before touching food, and practise safe sex to avoid spreading the parasites. The disease causes degenerative changes in an area of the brain called the substantia nigra. Nerve cells in this area are responsible for producing the neurotrans- mitter dopamine. As these nerve cells become damaged and die, there is insufficient dopamine to relay messages between nerve and muscle cells, and it becomes pro- gressively more difficult for the body to move smoothly. This causes characteristic tremors and shaking, which interfere with normal activities such as walking, sitting, and standing. In Canada, there are approximately 100,000 people or one out of every 100 adults P with Parkinson’s disease. Parkinson’s most often affects older adults and as Canada’s population continues to age, the incidence of Parkinson’s disease is expected to rise. Ev- eryone loses some dopamine-producing neurons with age, but those with Parkinson’s lose around 60 percent or more of the neurons in the substantia nigra. Scientists be- lieve that a combination of genetic and environmental factors is involved.

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